IMPLEMENTATION STEP 4: Monitoring context and adjusting project approach
Because of the changing nature of societies and environments, and the uncertainties associated with climate change, it is important that CBA projects undertake systematic and regular monitoring of endogenous and exogenous factors that may affect target communities and project investments. Outcomes of monitoring should inform adjustments to project activities. These adjustments should aim to minimise the negative impacts of changes and sustain desired project results and impacts.
Climate Context Monitoring Tool
The Climate Context Monitoring Tool is a simple set of questions which can be used to track changes in the climate context over the life of the project, and to plan adjustments to the project in light of these changes. It can be used as part of regular progress reviews, and the resulting information can be integrated into project progress reports.
Implementation Step 4.1: Establish mechanisms for monitoring context †
To ensure the effectiveness of a CBA project, the team should put in place clear and appropriate mechanisms for monitoring context. To begin with, the project team should monitor climate variables that may affect project success. To do this, the team would need to access and utilise seasonal weather forecasts and climate projections. The relevant data and information could be accessed from the national meteorological agency, the Famine Early Warning System Network (requires internet access), or the UNDP Climate Change Country Profiles (requires internet access).
It is also important for the team to continuously monitor changes in various factors and conditions that might impact communities and project investments. These include changes in the bio-physical environment, socio-economic trends, and demographic conditions, which could exacerbate the vulnerability of communities.
Changes in the availability and accessibility of water, land and other natural resources; financial resources such as money and other liquid assets; social institutions and safety nets; population numbers and dynamics, as well as changes in resource demand, use and consumption should be monitored. For example, with increasing drought, some of the traditional social institutions and safety nets that could otherwise serve as effective adaptation agents among pastoralists have become weak. The prevailing policies and political situation in the project area should also be monitored. In instances where there is poor policy implementation, political instability and conflict, it would be difficult to effectively implement your CBA project. It may be necessary to adjust project activities and increase efforts in advocacy and peace building to deal with negative changes in political and policy contexts.
Implementation Step 4.2: Review and update project strategy and implementation plan†
Managing a CBA project requires flexibility in management and resource allocation, as well as regular review of project performance. As a good principle of project management, the team should regularly review and revise the project implementation plan in view of climatic, environmental, socio-economic and political changes. The CBA projectís knowledge and information management system should also be reviewed regularly. When significant changes in context occur, these should be reflected in revisions of the knowledge and information management system.
Review and adjustment of the project implementation plan and approach helps the project to better address unforeseen constraints. In addition, the project team will be able to identify and make good use of emerging opportunities. For example, a CBA project in a drought-prone area that is increasingly experiencing flooding due to climate change could invest in more water conservation infrastructure to store surface run off. The stored water could sustain communities over a longer period during the dry season and/or subsequent drought.
CBA project strategies and activities should be adjusted to achieve adaptation and development goals under changing contexts and conditions.
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